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雅思写作题中让步段的概念及用法
发布时间:2017-10-31 01:29:55      文章来源:武汉澳新教育      点击次数:40次      责任编辑:武汉澳新教育

  1背景介绍

  根据多年来对雅思写作大作文的分析研究,尽管议论文的话题繁多,但其问题模式都可以归属于两大类,讨论类和分析解决类,讨论类常见的如:

  To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  What is your opinion?

  Discuss both the advantages and disadvantages.

  而分析解决是指对某一负面现象进行原因的分析,再给出解决方法。如:

  Discuss the possible causes of this phenomenon and suggest some recommendations about how to combat it.

  上述两类相信参加过雅思考试或者在准备的烤鸭们都已经非常熟悉了,那么在考试中出现几率较高的是第一类讨论型的题目,占了百分之八十以上,所以学会此类题目的论证过程的扩展对议论文分数的提高起关键作用。

  在雅思写作的评分标准中,我们看到前两个评分标准中,均出现了对段落扩展的描述,第一个评分标准task response,指任务完成度,在文章内容方面的体现即文章是否回答了题目的关于topic的论证,是否都围绕主题,无偏题离题现象发生,能否完整全面的对话题进行论证。而第二点coherence and cohesion,指连贯和衔接,内容是否连贯,很大程度上取决于论证过程的扩展是否有紧密关联,有无逻辑性。可见议论文论证过程的合理有逻辑的扩展非常重要。

  2 让步段的概念及用法

  在议论文中,常见的论证方法很多,如举例子、解释、类比、对比、列数据等,下面要给大家总结介绍一类在论证中能否体现论证的全面性的方法,即让步的论证方法,首先我们来看几个句型:

  1. As is granted, … However, convincing arguments have been made that …

  2. Opponents would argue that… However, …

  3. Although/ In spite of the fact that …, people tend to believe that …

  4. It is undeniable that …

  从以上三个句型,我们看出让步就是先退一步承认自己不同意的一个事实,再对其进行反驳,如某人去面试,老板要拒绝聘请录用这个员工,他会在拒绝前先说一番承认这个人在某些方面还不错的一些话,这就是让步。这样论证的优点是更加全面的论证,不会一味的一边倒,就片面的认为一个事件的存在只有优点或只有缺点,且论证也更有说服力。这种论证方法常出现在讨论类的单边论证中,我们来看一个题目:

  The main purpose of public libraries is to provide books and they should not waste their limited resources and space on providing expensive hi-tech media such as computer software, videos and DVDs. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  针对这样一个题目,通过审题,题目要求考生探讨图书馆是否需要提供高科技媒体。根据分析,我们可以得出单边论证的结构,同意提供多媒体。具体结构参照如下:

  Introduction: State my opinion

  The hi-tech media should been provided by the public libraries.

  Body: Ph 1 Making concession

  Multimedia facilities are expensive.

  Ph 2 Reason one to support my opinion.

  Hi-tech media can store information much longer than traditional means.

  Ph 3 Reason two to support my opinion

  Visiting a library with multimedia access is much more interesting.

  Conclusion: Restate my opinion

  The investment is justified and should be encouraged.

  从上述结构我们看出作者的观点是支持提供高科技媒体,但这个论证过程非常全面,它先在论证的第一段就退一步承认其缺点,然后再就这一点进行反驳,这个段落就是让步段,参考之前提供句型,得出这一段:Opponents of a high-tech library would argue that multimedia facilities are expensive. This may be true to some extent, because a DVD player is often more expensive than a bookshelf. However, with immense storage capacity, these new high-tech media can actually save the most valuable resource-space.

  让步段还可以运用到讨论类另一种结构中,笔者谓之双边倾向论证。我们通过一个具体的实例来解释这种论证结构以及让步在其中的用法。

  There are social, medical and technical problems associated with the use of mobile phones. What forms do they take? Do you agree that the problems outweigh the benefits of mobile phones?

  建议此题一定要认真审题,因为这个问题模式对文章的结构有着直接的影响。它有两问,第一问要回答手机的三个方面的问题,第二问优缺点讨论,结合这两问,得出文章结构如下:

  Introduction: State my opinion

  The problems of mobile phones far exceed the merits.

  Body: Ph 1 the benefits brought about by mobiles (Making concession)

  Convenient, functional

  Ph 2 the social, medial and technical problems of mobile phones

  Conclusion: Restate my opinion

  Although mobile phones have some benefits, the negative influences should not be overlooked.

  看完结构,不难理解双边倾向的结构即两个方面优点和缺点都提及,作者的观点是倾向其中一方的,那么不同意的那一方的论证段就可以理解为让步段。结合句式,我们可以写一下让步段的topic sentence:

  It is undeniable that mobile phones have facilitated our lives in many different ways.

  接着可以列举手机使用的几个具体的优点。这种让步和单边论证让步的区别是它可以不用直接在这个段落后面反驳。

  III 结语
  让步段在论证过程中有着相当广泛的实战意义,它可以帮助考生扩展文章的字数,达到要求,此外,它还能使得论证过程更加全面。推荐学生准确使用此种论证方法,希望对写作取得高分有切实的帮助。

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